Steel Connection Details Pdf
Bracing systems are usually analysed assuming that all forces intersect on member centrelines. In some cases it may be that movement on reversal is unacceptable - preloaded connections should be used in these circumstances.
Simple connections can also be needed for skewed joints, beams eccentric to columns and connection to column webs. The need for special connections can often be avoided by judicious selection of member sizes. Alternatively, joints may be classified based on experimental evidence, experience of previous satisfactory performance in similar cases or by calculations based on test evidence. Column base holding down bolts. Typical bolted column splices used for rolled I section and hollow section members are shown in the figure on the right.
Stability is provided to the frame by bracing or by the concrete core. The way in which horizontal shear forces are transferred to the foundation is not well researched. Standard flexible end plate connections.
The most simple form of the connection is as shown in the figure right and is satisfactory as long as the ends of each shaft are prepared in the same way as for a bearing type splice. The top flanges of beams should, where possible, be at a constant level, but this is less critical to cost than eccentric connections. End plate beam to column and beam to beam connections. In some cases it is assumed that modest horizontal shear is also carried by the holding down bolts. High strength grout is poured into the space below the plate see the figure below.
Standard fin plate connections details. Braced bays may have relatively high shear forces.
Bracing connections are generally made with non-preloaded bolts in clearance holes. The beam is then bolted to the supporting beam or column on site. The bolts are cast into the concrete base in location tubes or cones and are fitted with anchor plates to prevent pull out. Typical column bases, as shown in the figure on the right, consist of a single plate fillet welded to the end of the column and attached to the foundation with four holding down bolts. The end plate, which may be partial depth or full depth, is welded to the supported beam in the workshop.
Splices are typically provided every two or three storeys and are usually located approximately mm above floor level. There is a small clearance between the end of the supported beam and the supporting column. It is often more convenient to arrange the member intersections to make a more compact joint and check locally for the effects of eccentricities which are introduced.
Non bearing column splices for rolled I sections. Typical bracing connection to a gusset plate.
Welds may be provided to the web only, or around parts of the profile - it is generally found that the weld resistance is more than adequate for modest shear forces. The benefits of standardisation of connections are discussed for beam-to-beam and beam-to-column connections using fin plate and flexible end plate connections.
Note that fin plates with long projections have a tendency to twist and fail by lateral torsional buckling. Any direct bearing between the members is ignored, the connection sometimes being detailed with a physical gap between the two shafts. Flowdrill, Hollo-Bolts, Blind bolts or other special assemblies are used for connections to hollow section columns.
Fin plate beam to column and beam to beam connections. The selection of beam end connections can often be quite involved. Standard flexible end plate details full depth and partial depth end plates are shown in the figure below, together with recommended dimensions and fittings. Full depth end plate details have been developed to provide an increased tying resistance compared to partial depth end plate details.
Due to the uncertainty of the moment applied to the fin plate, the fin plate welds are sized to be full strength. The moments induced in splices placed at other positions, however, should be taken into account. Such column bases are often only subject to axial compression and shear. Stiffening may be required for long fin plates. These connections are popular, as they can be the quickest connections to erect and overcome the problem of shared bolts in two-sided connections.
Steelwork connections for simple construction, illustrated above, will generally produce the most economic steel frame. It is therefore good economic practice to ensure that steelwork can be placed with centrelines on established grids. Giving specific guidance on costs is difficult, cpanel accelerated 2 tutorial pdf as a Steelwork Contractor's workmanship rates can vary considerably and are dependant upon the level of investment in plant and machinery.
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Extended plates, with bolts outside the profile of the section may be used. Bearing column splices for rolled I sections. Both critical sections are then checked for the resulting moment combined with the vertical shear. For bearing type splices, the tying resistance is likely to be the critical check.
Overall beam lengths need to be fabricated within tight limits, although packs can be used to compensate for fabrication tolerances and erection tolerances. Standardised connections are efficient in their production.
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